Some useful Git commands

Hi friends,

Today I would like to share you a list of Git commands that I consider really useful when we work with this great version control  system. Enjoy it!

git-icon

Configuring your Git

// Disable autocrlf to avoid warnings in command line
git config --global core.autocrlf false
// Set username and email (global)
git config --global user.name “My user name” 
git config --global user.email “my-email@awesome.com” 

// Display configuration
git config -l 

// Get some help :)
git contig -h

 

Managing Git repositories

Initializing a repo

git init

Adding files for tracking or to the staging area

// Add all .txt files
git add *.txt

// Add all in the current directory
git add .

// Add a single file
git add README.md

Resetting your files in the staging area to the working directory

git reset HEAD <file>
git reset HEAD -- <path/to/file>

// Examples
git reset HEAD index.html
git reset HEAD .

Doing your changes persistent in the local repository

// Do a commit with all files in staging area
git commit -m "My custom message for this commit"

Watching previos version of files

// Watch a version of a very specific file (using the commit ID)
git checkout YOUR_COMMIT_ID -- path/my_file.js

// Return to the version of that file in HEAD
git checkout HEAD -- path/my_file.js

Watching logs

// Watch the log (details)
git log 

// Watch the log in one line per commit
git log --oneline 

// See two last commits
git log --oneline -2

// Show diff between files
git show

Merging a branch (my-branch) into other (master)

// Where do you want to merge?
git checkout master

// Which branch do you want to merge?
git merge my-branch

Restoring files

See the stored version of an specific file in a commit:

git checkout COMMIT_ID "path/to/the/file"

// Example
git checkout 6881326  "widgets/Awesome Widget/MyAwesomeWidget.dust.tpl.htm"

Working with branches

Creating, deleting and switching to a branch

// Get a list of branches in the repository
git branch

// Create a new branch
git branch my-branch

// Switch to a branch
git checkout my-branch

// A shorthand for two previous commands (create and switch)
git checkout -b other-branch 

// Delete a branch
git branch -d my-branch

Working with submodules

A very nice feature available on git is the possibility of using modules, for example when you clone CakePHP repository you could get DebugKit as a submodule, if you want to clone the main repository + submodules, use following command:

git clone --recursive https://github.com/alex-arriaga/universidad-del-pastel.git

Adding a new submodule

git submodule add <GIT_REPO_URL> <SUBMODULE_NAME>
 
// Example
git submodule add https://github.com/twbs/bootstrap.git bootstrap

If someone else added a new submodule, and you want to get submodules, you will need to use the update operation to obtain the module recently added:

git submodule update --init --recursive

 

Changing a submodule for another one

  • Update .gitmodules with the path to the new repository
  • Remove the corresponding line from the “.git/config” file
  • Delete the corresponding directory in the “.git/modules/modules/YOUR_OLD_SUBMODULE” directory (rm -rf)
  • Delete the checked out submodule directory itself (unsure if this is necessary)
  • Run:
git submodule init and git submodule update
Make sure the checked out submodule is at the correct commit, and commit that, since it’s likely that the hash will be different

Working with remotes

Forcing a push in origin (remote) to a previous version as in our local repository

// Suppose you want to return to a previous version
// in your local repository
git reset --hard YOUR_COMMIT_ID

// Then, probably you will need to force the remote to stay 
// in the same as your local repository
git push origin master --force

// Or
git push origin master -f

Sometimes if the remote server doesn’t have well-configured SSL certificates, you could get an error. If you want to disable SSL verification which I don’t recommend, use next command:

// Disable the SSL CERT verify globally
git config --global http.sslVerify false

// Disable the SSL CERT verify only in current repository
git config http.sslVerify false

Changing the URL of a remote:

git remote set-url <REPOSITORY_NAME> <NEW_URL>

// Example
git remote set-url origin git://new.url.here

Deleting remote branches

// List all the branches (local and remote)
git branch -a

// Delete a branch
git push origin --delete MY_BRANCH

 

 

 

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